- Introduction and Ag Biotech 101
- Herbicide Resistant Crops
- Weed Resistance
- Bt Transgenic Crops
- Resistant Insects
- Health Risks and Safety Assessments
- Regulation of GE Crop Technology
- Marketing, Economics, and Public Relations
- Patent and Intellectual Property Issues
- Key Historical Documents
Introduction and Ag Biotech 101
From the 1970s through the late 1990s, a sizable share of the controversial issues at the interface of agriculture, the environment, and pubic health arose from the use of pesticides.
Only a few years later, agricultural biotechnology dominated the attention of farmers and the food industry, agri-input industries, as well as many farm, public interest, and environmental groups concerned about the trajectory of conventional agricultural production systems.
There are two widely planted genetic engineering (GE) traits incorporated in crop varieties in the U.S. and globally – herbicide resistance and Bt-transgenic, insect-protected crops. Each type of GE traits has enjoyed remarkable commercial success, but the rapid pace of adoption lead to overuse, and then, as predicted by weed scientists and entomologists, the emergence and spread of resistant weeds and insects.
By the mid-2000s, the golden era of the GE revolution was waning. Farmers were spraying more, and paying more for GE seeds and pesticides, with uneven results. The detection of GE traits in U.S. commodity exports that were not approved by China and other foreign countries led to major market disruptions, and the loss of billions in exports sales and farm income, and high-dollar litigation.
Ironically, the GE-crop driven spread of resistant weeds and insects has triggered significant and rapid increases in herbicide and insecticide use, as documented in Impacts of GE Crops on Pesticide Use.
In a way, pesticides have come full circle. Residues of glyphosate have been found in human blood and urine, water, the air and soil. There is mounting evidence of adverse, GE-related pesticide impacts on non-target vegetation, pollinators, and aquatic ecosystems.
Rising reliance on and risks from pesticide use are emerging as a major flashpoint in the evolving debate over GE crops. In all likelihood, concern over the linkage between GE crops and pesticide use will grow more acute for several years to come.
Hygeia Analytics will cover major developments and discoveries in the GE-ag world, highlighting insights from recently published science. We will also try to help readers place contemporary agricultural biotechnology issues into context, by looking back in the Historical Documents section at the some of the important milestones as the first generation of GE crops came to dominate American corn, soybean, and cotton production.
A few key historical documents are highlighted here, and also see the section pages above for related historic resources or click here for historical resources from throughout the section.
- Don Duvick
- Arpad Pusztai
- General Ag Biotech:
- “Genetically Engineered Confusion” editorial in the Washington Post, 1999
- “World Food System Challenges and Opportunities: GMOs, Biodiversity, and Lessons from America’s Heartland,” Dr. Benbrook white paper, 1999
- “Asilomar Revisited: Lessons for Today?,” Science, 2000
- “The Ecological Risks and Benefits of Genetically Engineered Plants,” Science, 2000
- “Transgenic plants and world agriculture,” Report by consortium of international Academy of Sciences, 2000
- “Unraveling the DNA Myth: The Spurious Foundation of Genetic Engineering,” Harpers, 2002
- “Principles Governing the Long-Run Risks, Benefits, and Costs of Agriculural Biotechnology,” white paper by Dr. Benbrook presented at the 2003 Conference on Biodiversity, Biotechnology, and the Protection of Traditional Knowledge.