Hygeia Analytics – Who We Are

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The Hygeia Analytics Team

The original content of Hygeia Analytics, and narrative presented without attribution to an author, was written by Dr. Charles Benbrook.  See below;  for Chuck’s resume and more information on his work.

As the content on Hygeia Analytics grows, the website will serve as a platform to provide easy access to the papers, reports, analytical tools, speeches, and other work completed over Dr. Benbrook’s career.  It will also be used to make available several old, hard to access, but historically significant documents that have been disseminated in the past via other websites built by, or featuring Chuck’s work. These include Ag BioTech InfoNet, the Consumers Union website covering the implementation of the Food Quality Protection Act, the “Measure to Manage” website at Washington State University, and Pest Management at the Crossroads.

Rachel Benbrook is the HA webmaster. She lives with her two sons in Bellingham, Washington, and has developed and worked on several websites over her career in coastal ecosystem management and science education.  See Rachel’s resume here

Technical and design assistance has been provided by Rick D’Haene, owner of Bellingham WP.

About Dr. Benbrook

Dr. Benbrook is an avid fly-fisherman.

Brief Bio — Charles Benbrook has a PhD in agricultural economics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and an undergraduate degree from Harvard University. He currently is a Visiting Professor at Newcastle University in the UK.  See his CV here. 

He was a Research Professor at Washington State University from 2012-2015, and served as the Chief Scientist of The Organic Center from 2006-2012.  He was the Executive Director of the Board on Agriculture in the National Academy of Sciences from 1984-1990. He was the staff director of the Subcommittee on Department [USDA] Operations, Research, and Foreign Agriculture of the House Committee on Agriculture (1981-1983). He worked as an agricultural and natural resources policy expert in the Council for Environmental Quality in the last 1.5 years of the Carter Administration. He began Benbrook Consulting Services (BCS) in 1990, and continues to carry out projects with a wide range of clients via BCS. Dr. Benbrook can be reached at charlesbenbrook@gmail.com

Dr. Benbrook’s Peer-reviewed Publications

Laura N Vandenberg, Bruce Blumberg, Michael N Antoniou, Charles M Benbrook, Lynn Carroll, Theo Colborn, Lorne G Everett, Michael Hansen, Philip J Landrigan, Bruce P Lanphear, Robin Mesnage, Frederick S vom Saal, Wade V Welshons, John Peterson Myers, “Is it time to reassess current safety standards for glyphosate-based herbicides?”,  Journal of Epidemology and Community Health, 2017, 0, DOI: 10.113/jech-2016-208463.

Benbrook, C. 2016. Enhancements Needed in GE Crop and Food Regulation in the U.S. , Frontiers in Public Health, Environmental Section, Vol 4, Article 59.

Benbrook, C. 2016. Trends in the use of glyphosate herbicide in the U.S. and globally. Environ. Sci. Europe 28:3 doi 10.1186/s12302-016-0070-0.

John Peterson Myers, Michael N. Antoniou, Bruce Blumberg, Lynn Carroll, Theo Colborn, Lorne G. Everett, Michael Hansen, Philip J. Landrigan, Bruce P. Lanphear, Robin Mesnage, Laura N. Vandenberg, Frederick S. vom Saal, Wade V. Welshons and Charles M. Benbrook. 2016. Concerns over use of glyphosate-based herbicides and risks associated with exposures: a consensus statement. Environmental Health 15:19, DOI: 10.1186/s12940-016-0117-0 

Dominika Średnicka-Tober, Marcin Barański, Chris J. Seal, Roy Sanderson, Charles Benbrook, Håvard Steinshamn, Joanna Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Ewa Rembiałkowska, Krystyna Skwarło-Sońta, Mick Eyre, Giulio Cozzi, Mette Krogh Larsen, Teresa Jordon, Urs Niggli, Tomasz Sakowski, Philip C. Calder, Graham C. Burdge, Smaragda Sotiraki, Alexandros Stefanakis, Sokratis Stergiadis, Halil Yolcu, Eleni Chatzidimitriou, Gillian Butler, Gavin Stewart and Carlo Leifert (2016). Higher PUFA and n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid, α-tocopherol and iron, but lower iodine and selenium concentrations in organic milk: a systematic literature review and meta- and redundancy analyses. British Journal of Nutrition, 115, pp 1043-1060. doi:10.1017/S0007114516000349.

Średnicka-Tober D, Barański M, Seal C, Sanderson R, Benbrook C, Steinshamn H, Gromadzka-Ostrowska J, Rembiałkowska E, Skwarło-Sońta K, Eyre M, Cozzi G, Krogh Larsen M, Jordon T, Niggli U, Sakowski T, Calder PC, Burdge GC, Sotiraki S, Stefanakis A, Yolcu H, Stergiadis S, Chatzidimitriou E, Butler G, Stewart G, Leifert C. 2016. Composition differences between organic and conventional meat: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Nutrition. 115(6): 994-1011. doi: 10.1017/S0007114515005073. Epub 2016, Feb 16.

Philip Landrigan, Charles Benbrook. “GMOs, Herbicides, and Public Health,” New England J. Medicine 373 (8): 693-695, August 20, 2015. 

Marcin Baranski, Dominka Srednicka-Tober, Nikolaos Volakakis, Chris Seal, Roy Sanderson, Gavin B. Stewart, Charles Benbrook, Bruno Biavati, Emilia Markellou, Charilaos Giotis, Joanna Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Ewa Rembiałkowska, Krystyna Skwarło-Son, Raija Tahvonen, Dagmar Janovska, Urs Niggli, Philippe Nicot and Carlo Leifert. 2014. “Higher antioxidant and lower cadmium concentrations and lower incidence of pesticide residues in organically grown crops: a systematic literature review and meta-analyses,” British Journal of Nutrition, doi:10.1017/S0007114514001366, 2014.

Charles M. Benbrook and Brian P. Baker. 2014. “Perspective on Dietary Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Organic Food,” Sustainability 6 (6): 3552-3570; doi:10.3390/su6063552.

Charles M. Benbrook, Gillian Butler, Maged A. Latif, Carlo Leifert, and Donald R. Davis. 2013. “Organic Production Enhances Milk Nutritional Quality by Shifting Fatty Acid Composition: A United States-Wide, 18-Month Study,” PLOS ONE,  8(12), e82429.


Benbrook, C.  2013. “Are organic foods safer or healthier?,” Annals Internal Medicine 158 (4): 296-297.

Benbrook, C. 2012. Impacts of Genetically Engineered Crops on Pesticide Use in the U.S. – the First Sixteen Years, Environmental Sciences-Europe, 24:24. 

Benbrook, C. 2010. “What Does Sustainable Agriculture Have to Offer? Conclusions and Recommendations in Two NAS/NRC Reports,” The Organic Center Critical Issues Report.

Benbrook, C.  2009. “The Impacts of Yield on Nutritional Quality: Lessons from Organic Farming,” HortScience 44(1): 12-14.

Benbrook, C. 2009. “Prevention, not profit, should drive pest management,” Pesticides News,  82.

Benbrook, C, Davis DR, and Andrews, PK. 2009. “Methodological flaws in selecting studies and comparing nutrient concentrations led Dangour et al to miss the emerging forest amid the trees,” Am. J. Clinical Nut., 90 (6): 1700-1701.

Benbrook, C McCullum-Gomez, C. 2009. “Organic vs conventional farming,” J. Amer. Dietetic Assoc., 109 (5): 809-811.

Zhao, X, Carey T, Benbrook, C. 2007. “The influence of organic production on nutritional quality of fruit and vegetables: a meta-analysis,” Hortscience 42 (4): 885-886.

McCullum, C., C.M. Benbrook, L. Knowles, S. Roberts, T. Schryver. 2003. “Application of Modern Biotechnology to Food and Agriculture: Food Systems Perspective”, J. Nutr. Educ Behav., 35: 319.

Benbrook, C. et. al. 2003.“Use of ‘resistance risk profiles’ to guide resistance management planning”, Pesticide Outlook, 14 (3): 107-110.

Baker, B. P., Benbrook, C. M., Groth, E., and K.L. Benbrook. 2002. “Pesticide residues in conventional, integrated pest management (IPM)-grown and organic foods: insights from three US data sets.” Food Addit.Contam 19.5: 427-46.

Benbrook, C. M. et al. 2002. “Developing a pesticide risk assessment tool to monitor progress in reducing reliance on high-risk pesticides.” American Journal of Potato Research, 79: 183-99.

Benbrook, C. M. 2002. “Organochlorine residues pose surprisingly high dietary risks.” J Epidemiol Community Health 56 (11): 822-23.

Benbrook, C. 2001. “Do GM Crops Mean Less Pesticide Use?”, Pesticide Outlook, Royal Society of Chemistry.

Benbrook, C. M.  2000. “Performance criteria for IPM: measuring IPM results,” Henk, M. Kogan M. IPM in Oregon: Achievements and Future Directions, Special Report 1020, 19-27. Corvallis: Integrated Plant Protection Center, Oregon State University Extension Service.

Benbrook, C.  2000. “Apples, Kids and Core Science,” Choices,  Am. Ag. Econ. Assoc.

Nigh, R., Benbrook, C., Brush, S., Garcia-Barrios, L., Ortega-Paczka, R., Perales, H.R.  2000. “Transgenic crops: a cautionary tale,” Science, 287 (5460): 1927.

Lynch, S., D. Sexson, C.M. Benbrook, M. Carter, J. Wyman, P. Nowak, J. Barzen, S. Diercks, J. Wallendal. 2000. “Working out the Bugs”, Choices, Am. Ag. Econ. Assoc.

Benbrook, C, Foster, R. 1998. “Pest management at the crossroads,” J. Econ. Entomology 91 (2): 559-560.

Benbrook, C. 1991. “What We Know, Don’t Know, and Need to Know About Pesticide Residues in Food,”  January 23, 1990.  Chapter 15 in Pesticide Residues and Food Safety: A Harvest of Viewpoints, Edited by B.G. Tweedy, et. al., Amer. Chemical Society Symposium Series # 446.

Benbrook, C. 1991. “The Den Bosch Declaration: Grappling with the challenges of sustainability,” J. Soil Water Conservation 46 (5): 349-352.

Benbrook, C. 1991. “Protecting Iowa’s common wealth: Why A Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture?,”  Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 46 (2): 89-95.

Benbrook, C. 1989. “Sustainable agriculture: policy options and prospects,” Amer. J. Alt. Agriculture, 4 (3-4): 153-159.

Benbrook, C.  1988. “Is American Environmental Policy Ready for de Minimis Risks in Water?”, Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 8 (3): 300-307.

Benbrook, C. 1988. “The environment and the 1990 farm bill,” J. Soil and Water Conservation 43 (6): 440-443.

Benbrook, C.  1988. “First Principles:  The Definition of Highly Erodible Land and Tolerable Soil Loss, Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 43 (1): 35-38.

Benbrook, C.  1986. “The Science and Art of Conservation Policy,” Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 41 (5): 285-291.

Benbrook, C., and Moses, P.  1986. “Engineering Crops to Resist Herbicides,” Technology Review, MIT Press, 89 (8): 55-61, 79.

Benbrook, C. 1985. “Funding Agricultural Economics Research: Discussion, Am. J. Agric. Economics, 67 (5): 1262-1263.

Benbrook, C. 1983. “Carcinogen Policy at EPA,” Science, 219 (4586): 798.

Benbrook, C. 1981. “Erosion vs. soil productivity,” J. Soil Water Conservation, 36 (3): 118-119.

Benbrook, C. 1980. “An examination of the fledging alliance of soil conservation and commodity price support programs,” N. Central J. Agric. Economics, 1: 1-16.