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– Acceptable Daily Intake, a measure of the maximum amount of a pesticide a person can be exposed to without exceeding a regulatory agency’s “level of concern.”
- Alpha-Linolenic Acid, the major in food with health-promoting benefits.
– Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
– Agricultural Research Service.
- Bacillus thuringiensis is a genetic modification that has been widely used since the mid 1990s. So-called corn and cotton manufacture their own, natural bioinsecticide targeting certain Lepidopteran insects like the European corn borer, corn rootworm, and the cotton budworm.
(CDCP) – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
– Chronic Population Adjusted Dose, a maximum allowed level of exposure to pesticide active ingredients set by the in the case of pesticides triggering the need for an additional 3-X or 10-X safety factor under the Food Quality Protection Act. cPADs are expressed in milligrams of pesticide per kilogram of bodyweight per day.
– Chronic Reference Concentration, a measure of the maximum level of a pollutant like a pesticide that can be in a serving of food without exposing a person of known size to a dose exceeding the ’s “level of concern.”
- Docosahexaenoic Acid, an .
- Docosapentaenoic Acid, an important .
– Dietary Risk Index, a system that quantifies relative pesticide dietary risk.
– Environmental Protection Agency.
ERS – Economc Research Service.
– Food and Drug Administration.
- Food Quality Protection Act, passed in 1996 this critical legislation dramatically changed the basis for evaluating pesticide safety.
– Genetic Engineering or Genetically Engineered, indicating a product, crop, or animal that has been created all or in part through artificial manipulation of the genetic code, often from combining genes from more than one organism.
- Genetically Modified Organism, created through biotechnology that attaches genes from one organism into another’s genetic code to express a desired such as herbicide resistance.
— High lipoproteins. transport from the tissues to the liver where it can be eliminated in bile. - is considered good , because higher blood levels of - are associated with lower risk of heart disease.
- Human Nutrition Unit(s) are a measurement of the amount of the nutritional value of a crop per unit of area grown. Nutrient dense and/or high-yielding crops produce relatively more than less nutrient dense or lower yielding crops.
– International Agency for Research on Cancer, the global authority on the potential of chemicals and lifestyle factors to cause cancer.
— , document providing necessary, helpful, and useful information on the properties of a chemical or chemical product.
– National Agricultural Statistics Service, a agency responsible for field data collection, including pesticide use.
– National Institute of Environmental Health Services.
— The National Institutes of Health is a nonregulatory U.S. Federal agency that has oversight of research activities that the agency funds.
— National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is the agency in the Centers for Disease Control of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that researches safety and health hazards in the workplace and makes recommendations to improve conditions. Unlike OSHA, they have no enforcement powers.
— The No Observable Effect Level is the highest dose level that has not been associated with an observable harm in humans or test animals.
- National Organic Program, administered by the ’s Agricultural Marketing Service, establishes the rules and oversees the process governing organic certification.
- Nutrient Profiling Systems are designed and applied to quantify the nutritional quality of one food compared to others.
– Nutrition Quality Index, a system quantifying the relative nutritional quality of different foods.
— The National Toxicology Program is a Federal agency that coordinates toxicology research and testing activities within the US Department of Health and Human Services; provides information about potentially toxic chemicals to regulatory and research agencies and the public; and strengthens the science base in toxicology.
– Pesticide Data Program, administered by ’s Agricultural Marketing service. Approximately 20,000 samples of food and beverages tests annually.
— Parts Per Billion is 1 part in 1,000,000,000. The difference between 1 and 1 is important-it is like the difference between $1 and $1000.
— Parts Per Million is a unit of concentration often used when measuring levels of pollutants in air, water, body fluids, etc. One is 1 part in 1,000,000. The common unit, µg/liter, is equal to .
- Polyunsaturated , key “good fats” and essential nutrients with health promoting benefits.
- Recommended Daily Allowance, the scientifically-established recommended consumption of essential nutrients.
- The Organic Center, a non-profit organization dedicated to conducting science on the environmental and health effects of organic food and farming and communicate the findings to the public.
– U.S. Department of Agriculture
WHO — The World Health Organization is a United Nations agency that coordinates international health activities and helps governments improve health services.
“” (AI) — the chemical (or chemicals) in a pesticide that are responsible for killing or otherwise controlling target pests. Most tests required by regulatory agencies worldwide are done on pesticide active ingredients, rather than the products farmers and others actually apply.
“” — a single exposure to a toxic substance that results in a biological impact usually lasting no longer than a day
“” — the ability of a substance to cause poisonous effects resulting in biological harm soon after a single exposure or dose. Any severe poisonous effect resulting from a short-term exposure.
“” — are compounds added to pesticides and other agents that serve a purpose other than actively killing pests. Adjuvants are used to alter some other property of the solution that enhances function such as how it penetrates and spreads, or the size and nature of the solution droplets. Sufactants, , oils and salts are all common adjuvants.
“” (lipoic acid) — a powerful that is readily absorbed and utilized within the cell where it is capable of regenerating . As such, lipoic acid supplementation results in increased levels. Lipoic acid is also involved in energy production. Lipoic acid works together with and to protect the entire cell from .
“” — the building blocks of . There are non-essential , those we can make in our bodies, and essential , those we can not make but must get them from our diet. are not only important in the synthesis of , but also function in transmission of neural pulses.
“” — too few red blood cells in the bloodstream, resulting in not enough oxygen to tissues and organs.
“” — a substance produced in the blood or tissues in response to a specific , such as a bacterium or a toxin. destroy or weaken bacteria and neutralize organic poisons, thus forming the basis of immunity.
“” — a substance that when introduced into the body stimulates the production of an . include toxins, bacteria, foreign blood cells, and the cells of transplanted organs.
“” — an or other organic molecule that can counteract the damaging effects of oxygen in tissues. Although the term technically applies to molecules reacting with oxygen, it is often applied to molecules that protect from any (molecule with an unpaired electron). The term is used to describe a dietary component that can function to decrease the tissue content of reactive oxygen. Common include C and E, , N-acetylcysteine, , zinc and .
“” — autoimmune diseases occur when the body tissues are mistakenly attacked by its own immune system. The immune system is a complex organization of cells and designed normally to destroy pathogens, particularly viruses and bacteria that cause infections. Individuals with autoimmune diseases have in their blood which target their own body tissues.
“” –a major found in foods, and a pre-cursor of .
“” — the portion of a nutrient (or other chemical) that can be absorbed, transported, and utilized physiologically.
“” — a unit of thermal energy equal to 4.184 joules, used to quantify the energy content of food.
“” — a substance that can cause or contribute to cancer.
“” – chemicals produced by higher plants that function to protect the plant from the oxygen-based produced during the absorption of light. also act as pigments to aid in light absorption. In our bodies, function to protect our cells from free-radical damage. Several enhance immune response, help prevent cancer and heart disease, inhibit mutagenesis, and reduce damage to DNA.
“” — a study in which the risk factors of people who have been diagnosed with a disease are compared with those without the disease. Because the risk factor (e.g., nutrient intake) is generally measured at the time of diagnosis, it is difficult to determine whether the risk factor was present prior to the development of the disease. Another potential draw back is the difficulty in obtaining well-matched control subjects.
“” — a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction by reducing the activation energy required, but which is left unchanged by the reaction.
“” — an ionic species (molecule) with a positive charge.
“” (CNS) — the brain, spinal cord, and spinal nerves.
“” — the combination of a metal with an organic molecule to form a ring-like structure known as a . Chelation of a metal may inhibit or enhance its bioavailability, alter , and lead to bioaccumulation in parts of the body.
“” — a lipid used in the construction of cell membranes and as a precursor in the synthesis of steroid hormones. Dietary is obtained from animal sources, but is also synthesized by the liver. is carried in the blood by lipoproteins (e.g., and ). In atherosclerosis, accumulates in plaques on the walls of some arteries.
“” — a research study, generally used to evaluate the effectiveness of a new treatment in human participants. are designed to answer specific scientific questions and to determine the efficacy of new treatments for specific diseases or health conditions.
“” — a molecule that binds to an and is essential for its activity, but is not permanently altered by the reaction. Many are derived from .
“” — a study that follows a large group of people over a long period of time, often 10 years or more. In , dietary information is gathered before disease occurs, rather than relying on recall after disease develops.
“” — a in which at least two interventions or treatments are applied to the same individuals after an appropriate wash-out period. One of the treatments is often a placebo. In a randomized cross-over design, interventions are applied in a randomized order to ensure that the order of treatments did not contribute to the outcome.
“” — a study of a group of people at one point in time to determine whether a risk factor or a level of a risk factor is associated with the occurrence of a disease. Because the disease outcome and the risk factor (e.g., nutrient intake) are measured at the same time, a provides a “snapshot” view of their relationship. cannot provide information about causality.
“” (DV) — a term used in food and supplement labeling in the U.S. The amount of a vitamin or other nutrient in a serving of a food or supplement is expressed as the percentage of the total of that nutrient, based on a daily 2,000 or 2,500 diet.
“” — mass per unit volume (i.e., milligrams of a vitamin per gram of food).
“” ( mellitus) — a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of (sugar) in the blood. The two types of are referred to as insulin-dependent (type 1) and non-insulin dependent (type 2).
“” — a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by ketosis (elevated levels of ketone in the blood) and acidosis (increased acidity of the blood). Ketoacidosis occurs when is not adequately controlled.
“” — a product intended to supplement the diet that bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients: a vitamin; ; herb or botanical; ; any other dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake.
“” — a study in which neither the investigators administering the treatment nor the participants know which participants are receiving the experimental treatment and which are receiving the placebo.
“” — a substance which forms in an aqueous (water) solution. Major in the body include sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate.
“” — are compounds that bond to oil and water and are used to help chemical solutions form a stable emulsion, or mixture. are often added to pesticide solutions.
“” — the glands and parts of glands that secrete hormones that integrate and control the body’s metabolic activity. Endocrine glands include the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pancreas, ovaries, and testes.
“” — arising from within the body. synthesis refers to the synthesis of a compound by the body. Secondary plant are also within plants.
“” — a toxin produced by certain bacteria and released upon destruction of the bacterial cell.
“” — a that catalyzes a chemical reaction. A substance that increases the speed of a chemical reaction without being changed in the overall process. are vitally important to the regulation of the chemistry of cells and organisms.
“” — changes to the way an organism expresses it’s DNA. While these do happen naturally they can also be triggered by environmental exposures, including pesticides. changes often occur following fetal exposure and can have serious health implications later in life.
“” — a study examining disease occurrence in a human population.
“” — the causes or origin of a disease.
“” — nutrients that dissolve in fats or oils but not in water. These are often found in foods that contain fat, and fat may be necessary for their absorption from the digestive tract into the bloodstream. People who eat very little fat may have difficulty getting enough of the fat-soluble A, D, E, and K.
“” — an organic acid molecule consisting of a chain of carbon molecules and a carboxylic acid (COOH) group. are found in fats, oils, and as components of a number of essential lipids, such as and triglycerides. can be burned by the body for energy.
“” — water-soluble B complex vitamin. Plays an important role in cell division, and thus is important to the development of the nervous system of the fetus. can also reduce levels of homocysteine, preventing damage to the artery walls, and ultimately, atherosclerosis. is easily absorbed directly from the digestive tract into the bloodstream. Folates, however, must be processed by in the intestinal lining before they can be absorbed.
“” — the addition of nutrients to foods to prevent or correct a nutritional deficiency, to balance the total nutrient profile of food, or to restore nutrients lost in processing.
“” — an atom or a molecule with an unpaired electron. Because they have a free electron, such molecules are highly reactive with nearby molecules. By interacting with cellular components, may cause cellular and genetic damage, and their involvement has been implicated in several diseases. are generated by smoking, environmental pollutants, exposure to UV radiation, and also occur naturally in the body as a result of metabolic processes. damage may be countered with .
“” — a very sweet 6-carbon sugar abundant in plants. is increasingly common in sweeteners such as high- corn syrup.
“” — is the genetic code, or DNA, of an individual organism.
“” — a 6-carbon sugar which plays a major role in the generation of energy for living organisms.
“” — an excitatory neurotransmitter. Under certain circumstances may become toxic to neurons. excitotoxicity appears to play a role in nerve cell death in some neurodegenerative disorders.
“” — protects cells against various . levels have been shown to decrease with age. cannot be absorbed in the stomach, and therefore levels of this cellular protector cannot be increased with dietary supplementation. Instead, alternate (i.e. ) and precursors to (i.e. N-acetyl cysteine) must be taken in order to increase levels.
“” — Droplets of fluid that are released by plants. droplets come from sap and form on the tips or edges of leaves, often at night when transpiration (evaporation of water from plants) is reduced.
“Herbicide” — chemical used to manipulate or control undesirable vegetation, also known as weedkillers.
“Herbicide-tolerant” (HT) – crops genetically engineered to survive direct application of one or more herbicides during the growing season, chemicals that would otherwise kill or severely stunt the crop.
“Highlipoproteins” ( ) – that transport from tissues to the liver, where it can be eliminated in bile. - is considered good , because higher blood levels of - are associated with lower risk of heart disease.
“” — deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching body tissues.
“” — refers to studies and/or phenomena that take place outside the body (e.g., in test tubes).
“” — refers to studies and/or phenomena that take place in animals or humans.
“” — pesticides that are to kill, harm, repel or mitigate one or more species of insect.
“” — an experimental study (usually a ) used to test the effect of a treatment or intervention on a health- or disease-related outcome.
“” — an atom or group of atoms that carries a positive or negative electric charge as a result of having lost or gained one or more electrons.
“” — a chemical link between two atoms caused by the electrostatic force between oppositely-charged in an ionic compound.
“” — compounds that have the same numbers and kinds of atoms but that differ in the way the atoms are arranged.
“” — the study of the rates of chemical reactions.
“” ( ) — particles composed of lipids and . The form in which fats are transported throughout the body, in the bloodstream. LDLs transport from the liver to the tissues of the body. A high proportion of carried in ( - ) is associated with an increased likelihood of developing cardiovascular diseases (heart disease and stroke). Oxidized appear to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis.
“” — nutrients that the body needs in relatively large amounts. The major are , carbohydrate, fat, and water.
“” ( ) –document providing necessary, helpful, and useful information on the properties of a chemical or chemical product.
“” — a mathematical or statistical analysis, used to pool the results of all studies investigating a particular effect (e.g., the effect of supplementation on homocysteine levels) and provide an overall estimate of that effect.
“” — a general term for the complex biochemical processes by which the body generates energy from food, manufactures substances that it needs, and breaks down substances in food into simpler components for incorporation into the body or detoxification and excretion from the body.
to be a of that compound.
“” — a biochemical reaction resulting in the addition of a methyl group (-CH3) to another molecule.
“” (µg) — one is equal to one thousandth (1/1,000) of a milligram or one millionth (1/1,000,000) of a gram.
“” (µm) — one is equal to one thousandth (1/1,000) of a millimeter or one millionth (1/1,000,000) of a meter.
“” — nutrients that the body needs in small amounts. and are .
“” — a microscopic organism, especially a bacterium, fungus, or a protist.
“” — nutritionally significant elements composed of only one kind of atom. are inorganic, i.e., they do not contain carbon as do and other organic compounds.
“” (MDS) – a set of measures of some phenomenon that collectively are required to provide a reliable, quantitative assessment of levels, performance, and trends.
“” — toxins produced by certain molds; natural exposures to these toxins are poisonous to man and animals.
“” — progressive diseases of nervous system, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, that are characterized by the loss or degeneration of neurons.
“” — chemicals that cause (CNS) problems such as dizziness, headaches and ability to think clearly.
“” — a product isolated or purified from foods, and generally sold in medicinal forms not usually associated with food and demonstrated to have a physiological benefit or provide protection against chronic disease.
“” — the general name for esters of phosphoric acid. Many of the most important biochemicals are , including DNA and RNA and they are the basis of many , herbicides, and nerve agents.
“” –a chemical reaction that removes electrons from an atom or molecule.
“” — an organism is said to experience when the effects of prooxidants (e.g. , reactive oxygen and ) exceed the ability of systems to neutralize them.
“” (reactive oxygen) — a derived from molecular oxygen.
“” — a disease causing agent, such as a virus or a bacteria.
“” — a chain of . All are made up of one or more .
“hormones” –hormones that are , as opposed to steroid hormones, which are made from . Insulin is an example of a hormone.
“Pesticide” — a chemical that controls pests. The term encompasses herbicides applied to control weeds,used to manage insects, and fungicides sprayed to manage plant diseases.
“Pesticide use” – the basic metric of use is the pounds of pesticide “” applied per acre, or on a given crop over some period of time.
“” — a measure of acidity or alkalinity.
“” — the dose or intake level of a nutrient many times the level associated with the prevention of deficiency or the maintenance of health. A is generally associated with the treatment of a disease state and considered to be a dose at least 10 times greater than that needed to prevent deficiency.
“” — is the set of characteristics expressed in an individual organism based on the interaction of their (their DNA) with the environment.
“” — lipids (fat molecules) in which phosphoric acid as well as are attached to a glycerol backbone. are found in all living cells and in the bilayers of cell membranes.
“” — the creation of a phosphate derivative of an organic molecule. This is usually achieved by transferring a phosphate group (-PO4) from ATP to another molecule.
“” — the dose or intake level of a nutrient associated with the prevention of deficiency or the maintenance of health. A of a nutrient is not generally greater than that which could be achieved through a conscientious diet, as opposed to the use of supplements.
“Phtyochemical” — substance derived from a plant. The term is generally reserved for molecules with biological activity.
“” — an (as chlorogenic acid) that tends to prevent or neutralize the damaging effects of .
“” — a atom or molecule that promotes of another atom or molecule by accepting electrons. Examples of prooxidants include , (ROS), and (RNS).
“” — an observational study in which a group of people—known as a cohort—are interviewed or tested for risk factors (e.g., nutrient intake), and then followed up at subsequent times to determine their status with respect to a disease or condition of interest.
“” — a polypeptide or molecule made up of polypeptides. A complex, nitrogen-containing substance that is found in food and is essential for the functioning of the human body. molecules consist of long chains of building blocks called . Some of these can be manufactured in the human body. Others must be supplied by the diet. The body breaks down food into their constituents and then reassembles the into the needed for normal functioning.
“” — a compound that the human body can convert into a vitamin. For example, is a because the body can convert it into , as needed.
“” (RCT) — a that involves at least one test treatment and one control treatment, in which the treatments administered are selected by a random process (e.g., coin flips or a random-numbers table).
“” — an experiment in which participants are chosen for the experimental and control groups at random, in order to reduce bias caused by self-selection into experimental and control groups. This type of study design can provide evidence of causality.
“” (RNS) — highly reactive chemicals, containing nitrogen, that react easily with other molecules, resulting in potentially damaging modifications.
“” (ROS) — highly reactive chemicals, containing oxygen, that react easily with other molecules, resulting in potentially damaging modifications.
“” — a on, or protruding from the cell surface to which select chemicals can bind. Binding of a specific molecule (ligand) may result in a cellular signal, or the internalization of the and the ligand.
“” ( ) – intake levels set by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. The is the average daily dietary intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97-98%) healthy individuals in a specific life stage and gender group (e.g., women from 19-50 years of age). It is intended as a goal for daily intake of specific nutrients by individuals.
“” — another term for an -reduction reaction. A is any reaction in which electrons are removed from one molecule or atom and transferred to another molecule or atom. In such a reaction, one substance is oxidized (loses electrons) while the other is reduced (gains electrons).
“” — a compound found in certain plants and in red wine that has properties and has been investigated for possible anticarcinogenic effects.
“” — the chemical name for .
“Scavenge” () — to combine readily with , preventing them from reacting with other molecules.
“” — a component of the , peroxidase. peroxidase works with in preventing damage to cell membranes. In addition, appears to have properties on its own and plays a role in cancer, cardiovascular disease, enhancing immune function, inflammatory conditions, and cataracts.
“” — the movement of information through the cell.
“” — a small, usually single-celled reproductive body that is highly resistant to dehydration and heat and is capable of growing into a new organism, produced especially by certain bacteria, fungi, algae, and nonflowering plants.
“” – genetically engineered ( ) seeds that express two or more distinct (e.g., herbicide tolerance and insect protected).
“” — are compounds that are added to chemical solutions, including pesticides, to lower the surface tension between two liquids or a liquid and a solid. They can help a mixture blend together, foam up, or support better dispersion across a surface.
“” — any of a large group of plant-derived compounds. tend to be bitter tasting and may function in pigment formation and plant protection.
“” — the unique characteristic or attribute added to the genetic makeup of a crop using biotechnology. The capacity of a plant to withstand applications of a particular herbicide is an example of a crop .
crop represents one acre, an acre planted to a “stacked” crop with two is equivalent to two acres. This is why acres planted often exceeds total crop acres planted.
“” — plants are the higher plants that have evolved tissue to transport and distribute resources throughout the plant. This allows plants to grow to a larger size, as tubular and phloem conducting water and products from photosynthesis from roots to leaves and back again. Examples of plants are trees, grasses, and agricultural crops.
“Vitamin” — the name that is given to 13 organic substances that are essential in the diet because they cannot be manufactured by the body.are needed in very small amounts, but they are essential to life.
“” — a fat soluble vitamin involved in the maintenance of healthy skin, eyes, bones, hair and teeth and is essential to proper immune function. can be synthesized from the .
“” — riboflavin.
“” — is important in the formation of , structural compounds, messengers in the nervous system, red blood cells, prostaglandins, proper functioning of a large number of and in maintaining proper immune function. Low levels of result in high levels of homocysteine. Homocysteine damages the cells that line the arteries, which can eventually result in atherosclerosis. can inhibit platlet aggregation, lower blood pressure, can protect against the development of diabetic neuropathy and enhances the immune system.
“” — important as an but also in its ability to regenerate the form of . With acute viral infections (flus, colds), can reduce symptom severity and shorten illness time at high levels. Important in the maintenance of bones, teeth, blood vessels and connective tissue as well as enhancing the immune system, and in decreasing the risk of death from heart attacks, strokes, and cancer.
“” — a fat soluble playing an important role in protecting the cell membrane, fats, the immune system and from . Studies suggest that supplementation may improve immune function and reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, strokes.
“” (VOCs) — chemicals containing carbon are called organic. Volatile means that they evaporate or get into the air easily which make them easier to breathe in. Examples of common VOCs include benzene and trichlorethylene.
“” — nutrients that dissolve in water. These include and the B . can easily be lost in cooking if they are allowed to leach into the cooking water, which is then discarded. This problem can be avoided by serving foods raw, cooking foods in as little water as possible, or including the cooking water in the finished dish (e.g., in a soup or stew).
“” — various are commonly identified on air samples. Some are reported to be allergenic. They may cause problems if a person has had previous exposure and developed hypersensitivity. may be allergenic to susceptible individuals when present in sufficient concentrations.